Thursday, June 13, 2013

U.S. Bias to Israel - Evaluating Sources

The following sources will be utilized in establishing U.S. bias towards Israel and are evaluated in the following manner.

Book:

Smith, Charles D. 2010. Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 7th ed. New York: Bedford/St.Martin’s The source provides a complete historical break down on the history of the Arab-Israeli conflict from the height of Ottoman rule to modern times, and concentrates heavily on the creation of the modern nation-state of Israel. The book is based on historical events leading up to 2010 and therefore meets the criteria of currency. The relevance of U.S. bias to Israel is documented in several historical events contained in the book and I plan on citing from this source. The author is a professor of Middle East history in the Department of Near Eastern Studies at the University of Arizona. The book is compiled with actual historical documents from history and the historical events covered in the book have been cross referenced for historical accuracy. The purpose of the source is an objective review of history for educational and informational purposes.

Scholarly Journals:

Pierce, Jonathan J. 2011. Coalition Stability and Belief Change: Advocacy Coalitions in U.S. Foreign Policy and the Creation of Israel, 1922–44. The Policy Studies Journal 39(3): 411-432.

The source is pertinent to illustrating the bias of U.S. foreign policy to Israel and provides analysis of special interest groups and pro-Israeli advocacy groups (aka lobbyist organizations) inside the United States. The article, published in 2011, is current and will establish a solid authority for constructing an accurate confirmation on how the foreign lobby is able to manipulate foreign policy through representative democracy. Pierce is a political science professor at the University of Colorado and has co-authored over 16 journal publications since 2011. The accuracy of the journal article can be verified through the voting records of congressional resolutions and, more importantly, through AIPAC documentation and video footage from past annual AIPAC conferences. The main purpose for utilizing this source is to establish a foundation argument for lobbyist influence on U.S. representative democracy.

Guerlain, Pierre. 2011. The Israel lobby, American democracy and foreign perceptions of the USA. Journal of Public Affairs 11(4):372-381.

The selected article is a very strong source for citation concerning the foreign lobby and foreign influence methods on the U.S. Congress. The source surpasses the Pierce article in importance for demonstrating exactly how the foreign lobby is able to generate U.S. bias for Israel through influence on representative democracy. The article was published in 2011 and is current. The article has been published in a scholarly journal and the material analyzed concerning the lobby can be easily cross referenced and verified for accuracy. This source also reviews recent efforts of AIPAC and J-Street, the two largest pro-Israeli lobbyist organizations in Washington. The material is presented is objective in nature and presented for information and educational reasons.

Cohena Y., Haberfeldb, Y. and Kogan, I. 2011. Who went where? Jewish immigration from the Former Soviet Union to Israel, the USA and Germany, 1990–2000. Israel Affairs 17(1): 7-20.

The source discusses the historical immigration of Jewish immigrants to the United States after the collapse of the Soviet Union. While this will not be a major source utilized in the final project, it will present a source to illustrate the growing domestic support for Zionism within the United States and will build the opening argument for capital wealth crossing state borders (which can be linked to pro-Israeli political support). The article is published in a scholarly journal and co-written by professors from the Department of Sociology at Columbia University, the USA Department of Labour Studies in Tel Aviv University in Israel, and the University of Mannheim in Germany. The article is informational. An additional purpose for citation of this source will be to distinguish the economic differences between immigration to the United States and the nation-state of Israel. Many of the settlers immigrating into Israel over the past decades, especially after the conclusion of the Cold War, have often been lower economic Jews.

Smith, Robert O. 2012. Anglo-American Christian Zionism. Ecumenical Review 64(1): 27-35.

This source discusses the link between Jewish Zionism and Christian Zionism and will allow a connection to be made between the two, specifically on domestic political influence on foreign policy (U.S. bias to Israel). The article was published in 2012 and the information current, informational in content and analysis, and the author is the Continental Director for Europe and the Middle East in the Global Mission unit of the Evangelical Church in America. The purpose of citing this source is pertinent to solidifying an argument on Christian Zionist lobbyist influence in the U.S. Congress to advance Israeli interests, regardless of impact on domestic U.S. issues, and provides a strong insight into the religious biblical zealousness, counter to rational modern international or domestic policies, of Christian Zionists and Right-wing Evangelical leaders such as John Hagee.

Boer, Roland and Abraham, Ibrahim. 2009. God Doesn’t Care: The Contradictions of Christian Zionism. Journal of Religion & Theology 16(2): 90-110.

This source is a secondary source for linking the political bridge between Zionism and Christian Zionism. The author is affiliated with the School of Political & Social Inquiry and the Centre for Comparative Literature & Cultural Studies at Monash University in Australia. The reference, along with the Smith article, can be cross referenced with historical and current methods and movements to influence U.S. bias on behalf of Israel within the U.S. Congress. The source is informational.

Government Organization:

U.S. Department of State. 2013. FY2014 Executive Budget Summary – Function 150 and Other International Programs. On-line. Accessed from Internet, http://www.state.gov/s/d/rm/rls/ebs/2014/index.htm

This source is the annual government report on foreign aid proposal amounts for FY14 and provides a snapshot for the amount of U.S. funding provided to the nation-state of Israel despite a climbing national deficit and deep domestic budget cuts in the U.S. The source is informational, current and confirmable. Recently the foreign lobby placed very heavy efforts on influencing Congress not to cut foreign aid to Israel despite deep economic problems causing United States sequestration. This report alone is a strong source for citation which illustrates the vulnerability of representative democracy under the influences of a foreign entity (through domestic lobbyist groups).

Non-Government Organization.

Zunes, Stephen. 2012. The Strategic Functions of U.S. Aid to Israel. Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. On-line. Accessed from Internet, http://www.wrmea.org/congress-and-us-aid-to-israel/494-congress-a-us-aid-to-israel/9748-u-s-financial-aid-to-israel-figures-facts-and-impact.html

This source is produced by an NGO watch group on the Middle East and tracks foreign aid to Israel by dollar amounts and categories. The statistics presented can be cross-referenced to actual U.S. government U.S. foreign aid reports and will present the structural basis to present the conclusive argument of how the end results falls within the lobbyist established bias regardless of negative results to rational domestic American policies and interests.

Sample summary from web page: Benefits to Israel of U.S. Aid Since 1949 (As of November 1, 1997) Foreign Aid Grants and Loans $74,157,600,000 Other U.S. Aid (12.2% of Foreign Aid) $9,047,227,200 Interest to Israel from Advanced Payments $1,650,000,000 Grand Total $84,854,827,200 Total Benefits per Israeli $14,630 Cost to U.S. Taxpayers of U.S. Aid to Israel Grand Total $84,854,827,200 Interest Costs Borne by U.S. $49,936,680,000 Total Cost to U.S. Taxpayers $134,791,507,200 Total Taxpayer Cost per Israeli $23,240

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